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  1. American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons. http://www.neurosurgery.org/pubpages/index.html, 1998.
  2. An, Howard S. MD, Synopsis of Spine Surgery. Baltimore: William & Wilkins, 1998.
  3. "A Patient's Guide to Anatomy and Function of the Spine." Spine University: n. pag. Online. Internet. 27 Mar. 2001.
  4. Bellenir, Karen. Health Reference Series: Back & Neck Disorder Sourcebook. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1997.
  5. Berkow, Robert MD, et al. eds. The Merck Manual of Medical Information Home Edition. Whitehouse Station: Merck Research Laboratories, 1997.
  6. Bland, John H. MD. Disorders of the Cervical Spine Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1987.
  7. Blauvelt, Carolyn and Nelson, Fred R.T. A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology. 6th ed.St. Louis: Mosby, 1998.
  8. Boden, Scott D., MD. "Biology of Lumbar Spine Fusion and Use of Bone Graft Subsititues: Present, Future and Next Generation."
  9. Boden, Scott D., MD. "The Biology of Poterolateral Lumbar Spinal Fusion."
  10. Bradfors, D.S. ed., The Spine, Master Techniques in Orthopaedic Surgery. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1997.
  11. Cailliet, Rene MD. Neck and Arm Pain. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 1981.
  12. Code of Federal Regulations, Food and Drug, Title 21, Parts 800-1299. Washington: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, 1990.
  13. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 1965.
  14. Epstein, Bernard. The Spine: A Radiological Text &Atlas. Philadelphia: Lea & Febriger, 1976.
  15. Fine, Judylaine. The Ultimate Back Book: Understand, Manage & Conquer Your Back Pain. Toronto: Stoddart, 1997.
  16. Fishman, Loren, M.D. and Ardman, Carol. Back Pain: How to Relieve Low Back Pain & Sciatica. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1997.
  17. Glossary of Spinal Terminology. Park Ridge, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1985.
  18. Handbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 2nd ed. Springhouse: Springhouse Corporation, 1998.
  19. Hill, A.J. MD, PhD. The Patient's Guide to Anesthesia. New York: Kensington, 1999.
  20. Hochschuler, Stephen MD and Reznik, Bob, MBA. Treat Your Back Pain Without Surgery. Alameda: Hunter House Publishers, 1998.
  21. Johns Hopkins Health: Back Pain, What You Need to Know. Alexandria: Time Life Books, 1999.
  22. Kandel, Joseph, M.D. and Sudderth, David B. M.D. Back Pain: What Works! Rocklin: Prima Publishing, 1996.
  23. LaFreniere, Joan G. The Low Back Patient: Procedures for Treatment by Physical Therapy. New York: Mason Publishing U.S.A. Inc., 1979.
  24. Levin-Gervasi, Stephanie. The Back Pain Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Know. Los Angeles: Lowell House-RGA Publishing Group, 1995.
  25. LifeArt image copyright 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.
  26. Low Back Pain: Medical Diagnosis & Comprehensive Management. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunder's Co., 1995.
  27. McIlwain, Harris H., M.D., Bruce, Debra Fulghum, Silverfield, Joel C., M.D., Burnette, Michael C., M.D., Germain, Bernard F., M.D. Winning With Back Pain. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
  28. The Merck Manual. West Point, PA: Merck and Co., Inc., 1997.
  29. Panjabi, Manohar M. PhD, Dtech and White, Agustus A. III, MD, Dmed Sci. Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1990.
  30. Photo: www.comstock.com
  31. Porterfield, James A. and DeRosa, Carl Mechanical Low Back Pain: Perspectives in Functional Anatomy. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1976.
  32. Pulligschatz, Mary MD. Back Care Basics. Berkley: Rodmell Press, 1992.
  33. Rothfeld, Glenn S., M.D. and Levert, Suzanne. Natural Medicine for Back Pain. Thorndike: G. K. Hall & Co., 1996.
  34. Ruge, Daniel and Wiltse, Leon. Spinal Disorders: Diagnosis & Treatment. Philadelphia: Lea & Febriger, 1977.
  35. Sammann, Patricia and YMCA of America. YMCA Healthy Back Book. New York: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1999.
  36. Sandhu, Harvinder S., MD. "Spinal Applications for Recombiant Bone Morphogenetic Protien: Early Experimental Results." Los Angeles: UCLA School of Medicine.
  37. Subach, Brian R., MD, Haid, Regis W., MD, Rodts, Gerald E., MD, and Kaiser, Michael G., MD. "Bone Morphogenic Protien in Spinal Fusion: Overbiew and Clinical Update."
  38. Seimon, Leaonard P. Low Back Pain: Clinical Diagnosis & Management. Norwalk: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1983.
  39. Steadman's Medical Dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott-Raven, 1995.
  40. Tollison, David, Ph.D. and Kriegel, Michael L., Ph.D. eds. Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989.
  41. Tollison, C. David, Ph.D. Relief From Back Pain: The Tollison Program. New York: Gardner Press, 1987.
  42. Viscogliosi, A. A. An Investor's Guide to Orthopedic Terms. In M.R. Viscogliosi (Ed.), New York, NY: Martin Simpson & Company, Inc., 1992.
  43. Webster's Medical Desk Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster, Inc., 1986.
  44. Weinstein, James N. and Weisel, Sam W. The Lumbar Spine: The International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine. New York: W. B. Saunders Co., 1990.
  • Published: December 31, 2001
  • Updated: March 17, 2008