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S

SACCULAR ANEURYSM
A balloon-like outpouching of a vessel (the more common type of aneurysm).
SACRAL
Five fused segments of the lower spine, below the end of the spinal column, that connect to the pelvis and have four formina on each side.
SACRAL AGENESIS
Absence, failure of formation, or imperfect development of the lower portions of the spinal column and pelvis.
SACRAL ALA
Lateral portions of the sacral bone.
SACRAL CYST
Abnormality in the spinal fluid sac in the sacrum.
SACRALGIA
Pain in the sacrum.
SACRALIZATION
Fusion of L-5 to the first segment of the sacrum, so that the sacrum consists of six segments; with this abnormality, it is called BERTOLOTTI syndrome.
SACRALIZED TRANSVERSE PROCES
One or both of the lumbar spinous transverse processes abnormally joining with the sacrum; sacralization.
SACRODYNIA
Pain perceived to be in the area of the sacrum but may originate elsewhere; referred pain.
SACROILIITIS
Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint. A very painful, often one-sided sacral area pain that follows delivery, is not due to sepsis, and will subside gradually and completely; acute postpardum sacroilitis.
SACRUM
The sacrum consists of five vertebrae, which have fused together to form a single bone mass called the sacrum. The sacrum and pelvis (ilium) connect through the sacroiliac joints. The bottom of the spine, the coccygeal region, consists of four vertebrae, which, like the sacrum, have all fused together to form the coccyx or tailbone.
SAGITTAL
Longitudinal.
SCALENUS
The deep lateral muscles of the anterior neck, including anterior scalene m. (scalenus anticus), middle scalene m. (scalenus medius), and posterior scalene m. (scalenus posticus).
SCAPULA
A large triangular flattened bone lying over the ribs, posteriorly on either side.
SCHEUERMANN'S DISEASE
Inflammation of the anterior cartilage of the bodies of the lower thoracic and upper segments, causing pain in some older, growing children. There is more than 5 degrees of wedging of at least three adjacent vertebrae as seen on radiographs.
SCHMORL'S NODES
Developmental change resulting in inferior or superior extension of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral bodies.
SCHOLLNER COSTOPLASTY
For rib deformity or scoliosis; multiple rib partial excisions.
SCIATICA
A lay term indicating pain along the course of a sciatic nerve, especially noted in the back of the thigh and below the knee. Pain radiating down the sciatic nerve into the posterior thigh and leg; can be caused by irritation of a nerve anywhere from the back to the thigh.
SCOLIORACHITIS
Disease of the spine caused by rickets; abnormal bone mineralization.
SCOLIOSIS
Lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
SCOTOMA
An area of decreased vision surrounded by an area of less depressed or normal vision.
SCOTT
Use of cross-wire fixation transverse process to inferior pedicle in stabilization of spondylolysis fusion.
SEDDON
Drainage of thoracic spinal abscess through anterolateral approach with partial resection of rib.
SEGMENTAL INSTABILITY
Abnormal response to applied loads characterized by motion in the motor segment beyond normal constraints.
SEPSIS
A state of infection of tissue due to disease-producing bacteria or toxins.
SEPTUM
A thin wall dividing two cavities or masses of softer tissue.
SEQUESTRATION
Displaced material escapes as free fragment(s), which may migrate elsewhere.
SHUNT
A tube or device implanted in the body (usually made of Silastic) to redivert excess CSF away from the brain to another place in the body.
SIMMONS
Use of keystoned-shaped graft in anterior fusion. For cervical spinal kyphosis; a posterior osteotomy.
SKELETON
The rigid framework of bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports the soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for muscles.
SOUTHWICK
A posterior fusion with wire attaching bone graft to the facet joints.
SPEED (KELLOGG SPEED)
For spondylolisthesis spine fusion and anterior interbody fusion by using tibial cortical graft.
SPETZLER
Approach to anterior C-1 to C-3 by using a transoral approach for fusion following excision of tumor.
SPINA BIFIDA
A congenital fissure or opening (cleft) of the spinal column with hernial protrusion of the meninges (membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, including the arachnoid, dura mater, and pia mater) and sometimes the spinal cord.
SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE (eleventh cranial)
The nerve from the brainstem that supplies the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
SPINAL CANAL
The bony channel that is formed by the intravertebral foramen of the vertebrae and in which contains the spinal cord and nerve roots. The space between the vertebral body anteriorly and the lamina and spinal process posteriorly.
SPINAL COLUMN
See Spine.
SPINAL CORD
The longitudinal cord of nerve tissue that is enclosed in the spinal canal. It serves not only as a pathway for nervous impulses to and from the brain, but as a center for carrying out and coordinating many reflex actions independently of the brain.
SPINAL DISC
See Disc (Intervertebral).
SPINAL FUSION
Operative method of strengthening and limiting motion of the spinal column. Can be performed with a variety of metal instruments and bone grafts, or bone grafts alone.
SPINAL STENOSIS
General term denoting narrowing of the spinal canal in the lumbar area leading to nerve root compromise; term often used for developmental abnormality that leaves a narrow, bony canal. There are four subgroups of this condition: achondroplastic stenosis, constitutional stenosis, degenerative stenosis, and combined stenosis.
SPINAL THALAMIC TRACT
The main tract of pain to the brain.
SPINE
The flexible bone column extending from the base of the skull to the tailbone. It is made up of 33 bones, known as vertebrae. The first 24 vertebrae are separated by discs known as intervertebral discs, and bound together by ligaments and muscles. Five vertebrae are fused together to form the sacrum and 4 vertebrae are fused together to form the coccyx. The spine is also referred to as the vertebral column, spinal column, or backbone.
SPINOUS PROCESS
The portion of the vertebrae that protrudes posteriorly from the spinal column. The spinous processes create the "bumps" felt on the midline of the back. The most posterior extension of the spine arising from the laminae.
SPONDYLALGIA
Pain in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLARTHRITIS
Arthritis of the spine.
SPONDYLARTHROCACE
Tuberculosis of the spine; spondylocace.
SPONDYLEXARTHROSIS
Dislocation of a vertebra.
SPONDYLITIS
Inflammation of vertebrae, including types such as ankylosing, rheumatoid, traumatic, spondylitis deformans, Kümmell, and Marie-Strümpell d.
SPONDYLIZEMA
Depression or downward displacement of a vertebra, with destruction or softening of one below it.
SPONDYLODYNIA
Pain in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLOEPIPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA
Disorder of growth affecting both the spine and the ends of long bones.
SPONDYLOLISTHESIS
A defect in the construct of bone between the superior and inferior facets with varying degrees of displacement so the vertebra with the defect and the spine above that vertebra are displaced forward in relationship to the vertebrae below. It Is usually due to a developmental defect or the result of a fracture.
SPONDYLOLYSIS
Displacement of one vertebrae over another with fracture of a posterior portion of the vertebra. A defect in the neural arch between the superior and inferior facets of vertebrae without separation at the defect and therefore no displacement of the vertebrae. It may be unilateral or bilateral and is usually due to a developmental defect but may be secondary to a fracture.
SPONDYLOMALACIA
Softening of vertebrae; Kümmell disease.
SPONDYLOPATHY
Any vertebral disorder.
SPONDYLOPYOSIS
Infection in vertebra(e).
SPONDYLOSCHISIS
Congenital fissure (splitting) of vertebral arch.
SPONDYLOSIS
Ankylosis of the vertebra; often applied nonspecifically to any lesion of the spine of a degenerative nature. Bony replacement of ligaments around the disc spaces of the spine, associated with decreased mobility and eventual fusion; marginal osteophyte.
SPONDYLOSYNDESIS
Surgical immobilization or ankylosis by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft in cases of tuberculosis of the spine; spondylodesis, Albee procedure.
SPONDYLOTOMY
Incision into a vertebra or vertebral column; rachiotomy.
SPRAIN
An injury to a ligament when the joint is carried through a range of motion greater than normal, but without dislocation or fracture.
STAINLESS STEEL
Iron-based metal containing chromium that is highly resistant to stain, rust, and corrosion. Certain grades of stainless steel are commonly used to make surgical implants and instruments.
STEFFEE PLATE
For posterolateral fusion fixation; plate and screw device.
STENOSIS
Reduction in the diameter of the spinal canal due to new bone formation which may result in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
STEREOTACTIC
Originated from the Greek words stereo meaning three dimensional and tactos meaning touched and relating to stereotaxy.
STEREOTAXY
A precise method of destroying deep-seated brain structures located by use of three dimension coordinates.
STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY
The precise delivery of radiation to a preselected stereotactically localized target.
STERILE
Free from living organisms. Relating to or characterized by sterility.
STERILITY
In general, the incapability of fertilization or reproduction.
STERILIZATION
The method used to render a material free from living organisms. Usual methods include steam under pressure, gas, and ionizing radiation.
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
Large externally visible muscle of the anterior neck, enabling the head to turn to either side.
STERNUM
The breast bone; further divided into three segments. manubrium: upperportion, proximal end; sternum: main portion; xiphoid: the dagger-like tip of the sternum, distal end.
STRABISMUS
Deviation of eye movement which prevents the two eyes from moving in a parallel fashion.
STRAIN
To injure by overuse or improper use.
STRAP MUSCLES
A general term applied to the ribbon-like muscles in the anterior neck; they include omohyoid, sternhyoid, sternthyroid, and thyrohyoid.
STRUCTURAL CURVE
A fixed lateral curve of the spinal column.
SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE
Blood in, or bleeding into, the space under the arachnoid membrane, most commonly from trauma or from rupture of an aneurysm.
SUBDURAL HEMATOMA
A collection of blood (clot) trapped under the dura matter, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
SUBLUXATION
An incomplete luxation or dislocation; though a relationship is altered, contact between joint surfaces remains.
SUPERIOR
Situated above or directed upward toward the head of an individual
SURGERY
The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease, injury, and deformity by operation or manipulation. The performance or procedures of an operation.
SYNDROME
The aggregate of signs and symptoms associated with any morbid process, and constitution together the picture of the disease.
SYRINGOMYELIA
A fluid filled cavity in the spinal cord. Usually involving upper segments initially and involving the shoulder muscles.

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  • Published: August 08, 2002
  • Updated: March 17, 2008